Mass production of rare blood types

A team at Bristol University and NHS Blood and Transplant have managed to develop a method which allows them to produce an unlimited supply of red blood cells. Whilst it was previously possible to produce red blood cells in a laboratory, the cells died after producing around 50,000 cells (on average, adults have between 20 and 30 trillion red blood cells at any given time).

The new technique involves ‘trapping’ stem cells in an early stage, at which point they can grow and multiply indefinitely – essentially the stem cells have been made immortal. After a suitable quantity of cells has been produced, researchers trigger them to differentiate and become specialised as red blood cells.

Whilst there are no plans to stop using donated blood, such a technique could help when it comes to providing blood transfusions for people with a very rare blood type, as it is often very difficult to source rare blood types in such large quantities. One example of this is people from ethnic minorities, in which it can be almost impossible to match blood types. It also removes the risk of passing on diseases transmitted in the blood, such as HIV, malaria and septicaemia (although this isn’t really a problem).

However, there is a great cost associated with the production of these cells, and so it is unlikely that, at least for the time being, that these cells will be used on anything other than patients with very rare blood types.

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