Body weight can affect the risk of migraines

New study links the risk of migraines with being overweight or underweight. 


A migraine is usually a severe headache that may be a recurring condition and can potentially harm someones quality of life. It is a common condition with half of the population between 18 and 65 estimated to have experienced a headache in the past year with 30 percent of these being migraines. A migraine can also display symptoms of nausea vomiting or increased sensitivity to light. The symptoms for each individual case can be different with reports of sweating, diarrhoea and poor concentration also being common symptoms.

There are many types of migraines these include

  • Migraine with aura which is a migraine that has warning signs associated with it for example a person my experience a loss of vision in the lead up to experiencing a migraine so can act as an early warning sign. These can occur up to an hour before a migraine.
  • Migraine without aura this is when a migraine develops without any warning signs so can be sudden pain which that just comes randomly. This is the most common type of migraine.
  • Migraine aura without headache this is when the warning signs are felt but then no headache occurs or when other migraine symptoms occur with no headache. This means there is no severe throbbing or pain the head but the body still displays other symptoms of having a migraine.

So far the cause of a migraine is unknown so there is no cure but thee are factors that are believed to increase the risk of having them. These include lack of sleep, stress and lack of exercise but it is unknown why these affect the likelihood.

A look into 12 studies involving 290,000 participants showed that people deemed as overweight having a BMI of over 30 were 27 per cent more likely to have a migraine than someone of normal weight. It was also found that people were were deemed underweight under 18.5 for BMI were 13 percent more likely to have a migraine than a person of normal weight. The results remained the same after considering age and sex.

The study can’t be completely accepted due to the data being put in by participants so may prove to be inaccurate as well as only a moderate correlation without considering other factors such as metal illness, diet or physical activity. Despite this suffers of migraines may wish to consider this as a potential way to reduce migraines with a change of lifestyle to put them at normal weight. So far the treatments of painkillers and other medication only help to treat the symptoms so this may be a way to prevent them.

I’m going to leave you with a quote from Dr. Peterlin  with a potential explanation for weight affecting the risk of migrates.

   “It is not clear how body composition could affect migraine. Adipose tissue, or fatty tissue, secretes a wide range of molecules that could play a role in developing or triggering migraine. It is also possible that other factors such as changes in physical activity, medications, or other conditions such as depression play a role in the relationship between migraine and body composition […] As obesity and being underweight are potentially modifiable risk factors for migraine, awareness of these risk factors is vital for both people with migraine and doctors.”

Thanks for reading like always anything you wish to add please feel free to comment.


Aids virus identified on this day in 1984

On this day in 1984 the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome the HIV virus was identified as the cause of this disease. This was announced by the national cancer institute lead by Dr. Robert Gallo.


This was of course a major discovery as up until this point it was unknown of the actual cause of aids making research and treatment incredibly hard. As the name suggests aids is a disease that affects the immune system prohibiting the bodies ability to sufficiently defend against further infection. As a result many aids suffers don’t die from aids itself but from another disease that would normally be dealt with by the immune system.

HIV is the virus that causes aids, it is a retrovirus that destroys T-cells which makes it a particularity difficult infection as these cells are the cells that are supposed to be destroying the virus and are vital in the immune system. A HIV virus will bind to the antigens of the cell and gain entry once inside the virus changes the DNA of that cells so that it produces more HIV virus.This is done by converting the RNA in the virus into DNA with the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The RNA and enzyme are both present in the virus and its this aspect that makes it retro virus. The T-cells then produce HIV viruses as this is now coded for in the DNA. The number of the viruses builds up in the cell until they cause the cell to burst, the viruses inside are therefore released able to infect other T-cells. This cycle is repeated again and again until there isn’t enough of these T-cells to combat any other infection which is then aids. Essentially leaving the body defenseless so susceptible to other diseases.


When discovered in 1984 it was hopped that a vaccine could be created in two years and now in 2017 we still don’t have a way of curing the disease. Despite this huge progress has been made with many people infected with HIV able to live long normal lives thanks to antiretroviral therapy. This is a range of medicines that help to control the virus to stop it getting out of control. Which is major considering before these were developed HIV was seen as a death wish.

Research into this area has also enabled scientists to have a greater understanding of the role of the T-cells in the immune responses. The spread though sexual contact as well as from mother to child has been explored leading to advice on prevention. Another discovery is that about one percent of the population is immune to the HIV virus, this is due to a genetic change that alters the antigens on the T-cells meaning that the virus can no longer bind onto the cell to gain entry. This opens up the possibility of gene therapy as a cure for the disease. With further developments and research it is in my belief that one day a cure will be found. All of this development made possible by the discovery of the virus back in 1984 on this very day.

If you have any questions feel free to ask

Thanks for reading



new potential treatment for antibiotic resistant bacteria

New treatment involving removing antibodies from a persons blood shows positive affects in bronchiectasis sufferers.


The bacterial pathogen pseudomonas aeruginosa can be one of the causes of infection in sufferers of bronchiectasis disease. This disease causes life debilitating symptoms such as chest pain, chronic cough and shortness of breath. This is due to a permeant enlarging of the airways in the lungs that makes the suffer at higher risk of infection. What makes this even more dangerous is the fact that the bacteria pseudomonas aeruginosa and other infections are multi-drug resistant. This makes treatment hard as antibiotics that would normally solve this issue prove to be ineffective which puts patients at higher risk of serious illness.

Two individuals suffering from this particular bacterial infection were treated with a new form of treatment called plasmapheresis which removed blood plasma from the patient, then took out the antibodies in this plasma. The antibodies were replaced by donor antibodies from blood donors. The plasma was then put back into the patient this is much like how kidney dialysis works just treating the blood in a different way. This treatment was carried out five time a week and resulted in significant improvements in the patients with mobility and independence being at its best from the last two years.


It is believed that the patients had an excess of a particular antibody that prohibited the immune systems ability to deal with the infection. Therefore meant that the lung disease got worse rather than better, to combat this they decided to remove the antibodies from their blood which is quite an unusual method but the results show that it improved the lives of the patients.

This research could help to provide am answer for infection that doesn’t rely on the use of antibiotics. There is also the possibility that this technique could be used to prevent a infection getting worse to help earlier down the line. Should this prove to be affective in other infectious diseases then could prove to be a vital component in the treatment of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Thanks for reading



We hadve all at one stage experienced a blister in one form or another and creates great discomfort which can the lead on to other issues due to the person walking awkwardly trying to relive the pain.


What actually is a blister?

A blister is a small pocket of serum, blood or pus depending on the cause and weather it becomes infected. This fluid acts as a cushion to the skin underneath that may have been damaged or irritated giving the skin a chance to repair itself. Blisters are able to develop anywhere on the skin but most commonly on hands and feet.

What causes blisters?

Blisters are most commonly caused by friction or heat resulting in the skin becoming damaged and needing to heal itself.

In terms of friction any rubbing has the potential to cause one weather that be by poor fitting shoes or holding equipment in your hands. Sports people are particularly susceptible due to to sweat making the skin surfaces moist which increases the chance of a blister developing. Warm conditions causes by exercise is also believed to be a contributing factor. A active person may also be wearing shoes more often then someone who doesn’t do as much sport again increasing the likelihood. Although sportspeople are more likely to have blisters this doesn’t mean that people who don’t exercise will be free from blisters in this way.

Exposure to excessive heat though sunburn or flames and even steam is a common cause due to the damage that the heat causes to the top layers of skin. It is also possible that other forms of radiation could contribute namely blisters by UV rays which can indicate skin cancer.

Other causes include

  • medical conditions (chickenpox)
  • contact with chemicals (detergent)
  • Infection
  • allergic reactions
  • cold


In most cases a blister should be left to heal naturally without bursting it or peeling off the skin. This will just lead to to an increased haling process as well as the chance of it becoming infected. A normal blister shouldn’t need any medical attention only if it is particularly painful or if it is belied to be infected should a person contact the GP. This is also the cause should the blister be in an usual place or should it be caused by an allergic reaction.



To prevent a blister from forming it is vital to have the the correct footwear to avoid rubbing as much as possible. Wearing suitable socks is also an effective method of combating this due to moisture being absorbed as well as providing a cushion. When handling tools wear gloves to stop the friction causing blisters. In terms of heat and chemicals make sure your skin is not exposed with the correct safety procedures and equipment in place. Finally blisters from sunburn can be prevented by wearing long clothes or by applying sunscreen.

I hope you enjoyed reading about blisters. Leave any comments or suggestions down below for the future.

Thanks George