Equine Sarcoids



Photo credit: petmd.com

What? Equine sarcoids are skin tumours (usually benign) found on all equid species (horses, donkeys, mules, zebras and exotic asses). Although sarcoids are a type of skin cancer they are believed to not metastasise. They are usually identified by a vet by appearance, however the only definite way to tell is to do a biopsy. However biopsies are not usually taken as they tend to anger the sarcoid and can trigger it to grow at a faster rate, worsening it. Generally sarcoids are non-life threatening but they can be locally invasive and rarely regress.

Cause: Although no one is certain as to what causes equine sarcoids, it is widely believed that infection with Bovine Papilloma Virus (BPV) is responsible. BPV originated in cattle however it is unlikely that cattle play a large role anymore. Most horses will become infected with the virus however not all infections result in tumours. The appearance of tumours depend on the animal’s own immune system with between 2-8% of horses worldwide having the tumours. A widely accepted theory of transmittance is flies and it is believed that scar sites are more susceptible to the tumours.

Appearance: There are believed to be six different types of sarcoid; occult, verrucose, nodular, fibroplastic, malevolant and mixed. Sarcoids can be found on the back, tail, neck, around the eyes, on the face, eyelids, back and front legs and belly.

Occult sarcoids are flat and hairless with dry, crusty and dark patches. They are found on the inside of upper limbs, neck and eyes.

Verrucose sarcoids take on a wart-like appearance and can be ulcerated.

Nodular sarcoids are firm and nodular skin lumps. Many are covered by normal skin.

Fibroplastic sarcoids ulcerated, weeping, raised, sore skin lesions which may develop a ‘neck’ or stalk and become cauliflower-like. They are found in any area of the body.

Malevolant sarcoids are rare, invasive sarcoids, found as several nodules. They may invade deeper tissues beneath the skin.

Mixed sarcoids are combinations of different types of sarcoid.


  • Cryosurgery: liquid nitrogen burns off the sarcoid. It works best on flat sarcoids.
  • Banding with rubber rings: this works best if the sarcoid has a neck/stalk.
  • Topical medication: the three types of topical medicines are ‘Aldara’ ‘XXterra’ and ‘Zorac’. ‘Aldara’ works as an immune response provider, XXterra contains an extract of Sanguinara canadensis and ‘Zorac’ is a retinoid that is also used for the treatment of psoriasis in people.
  • Chemotherapy drugs: these can be administered as a cream or an injection.
  • Surgical excision. This is often not advised as it can be difficult to remove all of the sarcoid and if part of it is not removed, it often becomes irritated and grows back worse than before.
  • BCG vaccine: this is used against TB in humans. In equid species it can trigger their immune system to reject the sarcoid.

For tumours in the peri-orbital area, a new treatment is being used; high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB). This does not have any significant acute adverse effects and results in a quicker recovery as the procedure is only a few minutes long. Additionally, as the horses are not radioactive, they do not need to be isolated.



  • vettimes
  • horsevet.co.uk
  • petmd.com
  • equinesarcoid.co.uk
  • ed.ac.uk/files/fileManager/sarcoids.pdf
  • horseandhound.co.uk

How to Change the World


Imagine a land where no one inflicted harm on others, where we were healthy and nothing suffered for the benefit of others. Now realise that this is not an imaginary utopia. This lifestyle is completely possible in our society and in my opinion is not a lot to ask for; a basic right.

Every day thousands upon thousands of murders take place and we are indoctrinated into believing that it is a nescessary act. We have the power to change this by changing the most basic thing in our lives: our diet. Veganism is the answer.

Now it is highly doubtful that the public encourages animal cruelty. In fact, in the UK, out of the top thousand charities, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is in 12th position for amount of money donated! Considering this it is unbelieveable that we still consume animal products. The only rational explanation of this consumption is a lack of knowledge and a disconnection from animals.

Every minute of every hour of every day thousands of animals are slaughtered for the pleasure of humans. Slaughter typically commences by a form of stunning to make the animal unconcious (which in a lot of cases is inaffective). The most common methods of stunning are an electric bolt to the head, an electric current and gas chambers. The animal then has his or her throat slit and is left to bleed out. It is highly unlikely that any person would be eager to kill another living creature and many cannot stomach footage of slaughter houses. Despite this, the majority of the population still consume meat and whilst some are aware of the horrible conditions of abbatoirs and others are not, they are all very much disconnected from how their food is processed and where it comes from.

So what is wrong with being vegetarian? Why is veganism the answer? It has gradually become more accepted in society to be vegetarian but to be vegan is often viewed as hippy, extreme and quite frankly, ridiculous. It is understandable that if one has been raised eating meat veganism can seem daunting and extreme. This may be because veganism is not a diet. It is a lifestyle. In the words of PETA, vegans believe that “Animals are not ours to eat, experiment on, use for entertainment or abuse in any way”. Contrary to popular opinion, the dairy and egg industries do abuse and cause unnescessary harm and suffering to the animals involved.

On many dairy farms, cows are artificially inseminated to make them pregnant. Immediately after giving birth, the calves are removed from their mothers, never to see them again. Male calves are sold to become veal and female calves are enslaved and raised to suffer the same fate as their mothers. The natural lifespan of a cow is around twenty years but in the dairy industry they are slaughtered at just a quarter of that. When it is determined that a cow is not producing enough milk to make keeping her alive financially profitable, she is sent to the slaughter house to meet her premature death.

In the egg industry, male chicks are destroyed as they are deemed useless. A very common method of killing male chicks is to crush them in a machine that resembles a kitchen appliance; the blender. Essentially these babies are blended alive, their corpses used for cheap meat. A single chicken will lay over three hundred eggs when naturally they lay just seventeen. Clearly, this wreaks havoc on their bodies and they are more prone to disease. To combat disease, as in all other animal industries, these poor creatures are force fed antibiotics, regardless of whether or not they are ill in a process called mass medication. In the United States, 80% of all antibiotics are given to livestock. This unnecessary use of antibiotics contributes greatly to antimicrobial resistance. Research has also suggested that antimicrobial resistance can be passed onto humans through the consumption of meat that came from an animal that was administered antibiotics, clearly affecting our health.

This brings me onto another point; human health. Consumption of meat and animal products is the world’s leading cause of heart disease. A lot of research has shown that a vegan diet not only prevents heart disease but can also reverse it! Many doctors actually reccommend a plant-based diet. Balanced vegan diets contain no cholesterol, which is why they act in this way. It has also been shown that animal products are a major cause of cancer and that eggs inhibit iron absorption, leading to anaemia. Contrary to popular opinion, a balanced vegan diet will NOT weaken you. A terrible diet of any kind definitely will. Many healthy and strong atheletes are vegans. For example, the boxer David Haye or Scott Durek, the ultramarathon runner.

Furthermore, veganism is not only good for us but good for the planet. Animal agriculture uses a third of freshwater and is responsible for up to 51% of greenhouse emissions. 9% of all carbon dioxide emissions, 40% of all methane emissions and 65% of all nitrogen dioxide emissions are the results of animal agriculture and yes these emissions greatly affect the rate of global warming. Species extinction and habitat destruction are just a few of the package results from the intense farming of these creature.

As veganism is a lifestyle, not just a diet, many vegans also buy animal cruelty free products, including toiletries, clothes and hair products, by enxtension boycotting products that test on animals. Superdurg’s own brand products are all labelled as ‘cruelty free’.

Even if this hasn’t completely convinced you to become vegan, I hope that it has inspired you to ask questions. Question everything, even the things that you take for granted; with knowledge comes power.

The purpose of me discussing these issues is education. If you are aware of the cruelty and the methods that are involved in making your burgers then you can make a conscious decision to change your behaviour. Education is the most powerful weapon and if you have the knowledge to make informed choices then you have the power to change the world.

The quote I will leave you with is one from Tolstoy:

“As long as there are slaughterhouses there will be battlefields.”


  • vegansociety.com
  • peta.org
  • Nick Dare, SoTrueQ, The Vegan Activist, Vegan Speak, Joey Carbstrong and Bonny Rebecca YouTube channels.
  • The Guardian

Animal Profile: Natterjack Toad


Photo credit: Tracy Farrer


Common name: natterjack toad

Class: amphibia

Order: anura

Size: 60-70mm in length and 4-19g in weight

Appearance: short legs, brown with bumps on back and a yellow line down the middle of its back.

Conservation status: least concern

Diet: at night, they eat moths. They also eat woodlice, marine invertebrates, sandhoppers and other insects.

Habitat: coastal areas in western Europe. They live in sand and warm, shallow ponds.

Lifespan: 10-15 years

Breeding season: April to June

Predators: foxes, otters, herons, hedgehogs, terns and gulls.

Threats: loss of habitat

Interesting facts:

  1. they are a European Protected Species
  2. loudest amphibian in the UK
  3. they have an unusual gate due to their short legs, resulting in them running rather than hopping.
  4. limbs are adapted for digging
  5. hibernate through the winter in burrows
  6. population numbers have declined by 75% in the past century.


  • IUCN redlist
  • Wiikipedia
  • cheshirewildlifetruat.org.uk
  • froglife.org
  • wildlifetrusts.org


Animal profile: short-snouted seahorse


Common name: Short-snouted seahorse

Scientific name: Hippocampus hippocampus

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Syngnathiformes

Conservation status: data deficient

Population: unknown

Habitat: shallow waters on the south coast of the British isles

Size: up to 15cm in height

Diet: 65-70 fully grown shrimp

Lifespan: up to 5 years in the wild

Breeding: both male and female short-snouted seahorses become sexually mature at 6 months of age. Breeding pairs tend to stay together throughtout the breeding season. Using her ovipositor, the female deposits her eggs into the male’s brood pouch. The male then sinks to the seabed and fertilises the eggs. Gestation can last between two and four weeks and labour can be up to 12 hours.

Threats: habitat degradation, human disturbance, pollution, domestication and capture for their so-called ‘medicinal’ purposes.

Other interesting facts: 

  1. short-snouted seahorses have no teeth
  2. to propel them along, their dorsal fin beats 30-70 times a second
  3. their prehensile tail allows them grip seaweed, preventing them from being washed away the currents.
  4. they can change their colour to suit their mood and their surroundings
  5. they are left to fend for themselves from birth
  6. they can move their eyes independently


  • Vegan Life Magazine
  • Wikipedia
  • ICUN redlist

Vetsim 2017


On the 15th and 16th of July, I was lucky enough to attend Vetsim at the University of Nottingham. It was a weekend packed full of interesting lectures, skill sessions and animal handling sessions.

The Saturday started with a talk by a veterinarian who had studied at the University of Nottingham. She talked about her current job at the RSPCA and her experiences at university, including her numerous trips to South Africa to work with the big cats and sharks! Needless to say, her anecdotes further instilled a love of animals in all the Vetsim delegates.

The next talk was given by James Ridgeway and was on ‘The GMO Project’; a project where we are given the opportunity to design a genetically modified organism and write a paper detailing its significance in the world of veterinary medicine. In the brainstorming part of this talk, we considered the bioluminescence gene and came up with ideas as to how it could benefit society.

Immediately following this inspiring talk was a lecture on the Multiple Mini Interview (MMI), a style of interview that many universities are now adopting. This talk was followed up the next day with a practical session.

After the MMI lecture, I got lost on the (MASSIVE!) campus but eventually found my way to Derby Hall where dinner was being served.

The evening was dedicated to practical sessions and a ‘Q&A’ with students studying veterinary medicine. The practical sessions were on auscultation and keyhole surgery.

Sunday commenced with a hearty breakfast and a second practical session. Skills taught were suturing and bandaging, animal CPR, MMI practice and small animal health checks.

Sunday afternoon was by far my favourite as we got to see and handle some exotic animals. I was surprised to learn that many of the animals (including skunks!) can be purchased without a licence, which raised some within all issues and made me feel uncomfortable at times. However, the highlight of the afternoon was handling the snakes!

I was also kindly allowed to have a meerkat on my shoulders and to hold a baby skunk!

Other animals seen included a possum, blue-tongued skink and a snapping turtle.

Overall I enjoyed Vetsim very much and would recommend it for any aspiring vets out there!

Work Experience Abroad – Un Stage à l’Étranger



Firstly, please accept my apologies for not blogging consistently recently. The main reason for this was that I was abroad for two weeks in France doing work experience with a veterinarian.

It will be so difficult to condense such a fabulous experience into one blog post, but I will attempt to do so this week.

It all started on the 25th of June when I left Southampton for Rennes in what I found to be a rattly and noisy plane. Whilst waiting for a train from Rennes to Guingamp (where I was staying) I met some nice people and had a delicious crêpe (big thank you to Angus!). Following a relaxing train journey (where a French boy gave me some sweets) I finally arrived in Guingamp and was met by the family I would be staying with, who were so kind and welcoming.

An eight o’clock start the next day showed me how the rest of the days would start. Farm number one was dairy (as were all of the farms I visited) where I was so surprised at the sheer size of the cow that the vet was called out to treat, being told that the cow had gut problems. After 15 minutes trying to restrain the cow, I heard the vet say something about the cow’s back. As my French is not perfect, that was all I understood. After the farm visit, he explained to me that when the bull was mating with the cow, he was so heavy that he had damaged her back, resulting in her being unable to defecate and having gut problems. I believe that the vet recommended a chiropractor! I saw another case like this later on in the experience.

Further into the work experience, we visited a farm with a cow that had milk fever. We had already come across this several times but this experience was particularly special to me as I was allowed to inject antibiotics into the cows. J’ai piqué la vache pour administrer les antibiotiques. The sheer force required to insert the needle surprised me. In addition to antibiotics, the vet also performed a perfusion, allowing me to hold the bottle that contained the perfusion solution.

Another interesting farm visit was to take a blood sample from a cow who had aborted her calf. In France if a cow aborts her calf, the farmer is obliged to contact a vet to take a blood sample for analysis. If a certain number of abortions occur in a small area within a certain length of time, the farmers get together and the authorities are alerted. In this way, diseases are managed.

During my time in Guingamp (and the surrounding areas) I was lucky enough to watch several surgeries, the most spectacular of which was a cesarean-section on a cow. It was a very long operation with a lot of blood and gore. Surprisingly, two calves came out of the cow, however they were both dead unfortunately.

Most of the placement was shadowing and carrying things, which suited me down to the ground as it was tough to concentrate on a lot of things whilst surrounded by another language.

Another quite interesting operation was a tail amputation on a cat. It was unknown as to how exactly the cat managed to injure its tail, but the vet suspected that it had caught its rail in a door, pulled it and pulled apart the vertebrae. Unfortunately the sole solution was to amputate.

On one sunny day, the family I was staying with were kind enough to show me La Côte de Granit Rose – The Pink Granite Coast. It is one of the most beautiful places I have ever been to, even though the next day I was a tad sunburnt.

This utterly fabulous experience went very quickly and the days were so packed full of exciting and interesting things that it was difficult for me to contain my excitement. Apparently it was just all in a day’s work for these talented veterinarians.

Microscopes, chemicals, mathematics, bacteria and everything else imaginable was featured.

When visiting farms, procedures were performed with whatever was there, quite different to the sterile environment I had learned to expect.

All in all, this has only strengthened my determination to become a veterinarian and I have truly realised that the vocation is my calling.

Animal Profile: Vaquita


Hello all, apologies for not posting for the last few weeks, I have been abroad doing work experience! A summary of this fabulous experience will show up here soon. I will also be fairly busy in the upcoming weeks but I will endeavour to post every week. Anyway, to keep you interested, here is an animal profile on the vaquita, the world’s most rare marine mammal.

Photo credit: Thomas Jefferson

Common name: Vaquita porpoise

Scientific name: Phocoena sinus

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetartiodactyla

Conservation status: critically endangered

Population: 30

Habitat: marine, only in the Northern Gulf of California

Size: up to 5 ft in length and up to 120 lbs in weight.

Diet: ocean fish, for example the gulf croaker. They have also been known to eat squid.

Lifespan: approximately 20 years. Sexual maturity is believed to occur at 3-6 years.

Appearance: is mainly grey, with large, dark circles around its eyes. It also has dark patches on its lips that stretch to its dorsal fin, forming what looks like a smile.

Breeding: the mating season is from April to May and they have a 10-11 month gestation period, resulting in just one calf. A female vaquita will have a calf every two or so years.

Threats: fishing gear and commercial shrimp trawlers.

Other Interesting Facts:

  1. only discovered in 1958.
  2. to help increase the vaquita population, the Mexican government has recently announced a permanent ban on gill nets.
  3. the vaquita is the world’s most rare marine mammal.
  4. the vaquita is also the smallest porpoise in the world.
  5. seen either alone or in small groups of two or three.
  6. they use sonar to communicate with each other and also to navigate the waters of the gulf.






Do Dogs Spread Bovine Tuberculosis?


Photograph credit: http://www.sussexcountyva.gov/departments/animal-control/hunting-dogs

Firstly, what is bovine tuberculosis?

Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium bovis which is a slow-growing, aerobic bacterium. It is able to survive in the soil for up to a year and, despite its name suggesting otherwise, the bacterium can infect mammals other than cattle for example, deer, dogs, badgers, humans, cats and many more. However it dies present itself differently depending on the species and in cattle, is mainly a respiratory disease. Often it is found in the lymph glands of the throat and lungs and is passed out if the body in discharge of the nose and mouth, as well as in the breath of the infected animal.

How does it spread?

It is known that bTB (bovine tuberculosis) is transmitted between cattle, between badgers and also between the two species in what is know as a cycle of re infection. Animals become infected with bTB through inhalation or ingestion of the bacteria, which often happens though contaminated water and food. Between cattle, the disease is also transmitted via the placenta, to an unborn foetus and via infected milk. Badgers live in burrows (setts) underground with a group of badgers, and, as expected, close contact is unavoidable, hence bTB spreads quickly through the group. Close contact is also how the disease spreads between badgers and cattle, although it is not limited to this as an animal can also become infected after contact with sputum, faeces, urine, and also infected discharge from skin lesions or abscesses.

What is being done to control the disease?

Sadly, infected cattle are euthanised (nearly 40,000 last year) and there are many culls of badgers every year, regardless of whether or not the badger is infected with bTB. Farmers are also encouraged to keep infected cattle in isolation until they are euthanised so as to minimise spread of the disease and are also encouraged not to use slurry from other farms on their fields, just in case bTB was present there.


It is widespread opinion that badgers are responsible for large outbreaks or bTB and are believed to be the main spreader of the disease.

However, new investigations have found bovine tuberculosis in dogs, who are expected to have contracted the disease by eating infected meat. Infected livestock can still enter the food chain, as long as they do not have more than one lesion in more than one organ and feeding euthanised livestock to hunt kennels is a cheap way of dispose of carcasses.

Approximately fifty dogs are suspected to have been euthanised because of testing positive for bTB but a spokesman for the Master of Fox Hounds Association did not believe that there was a connection between bTB and fox hounds, despite being “aware of some new cases” of the disease.

Iain McGill has campaigned against badger culling and has said that he is “extremely concerned … that this disease is being carried by hunting hounds”. He also expressed concern that the government is ignoring significant evidence of this. Many wealthy Tory supporters are in favour of hunting with hounds, so this may play a role as to why the government are brushing off this new hypothesis.






The Times


Why Do Hares Box?


Photograph: J Bohdal / naturephoto-cz.com

Hares are often mistaken for rabbits, but are magnificent animals in their own right. It is often obvious to tell a hare apart from a rabbit when it moves – hares ‘sprint’ whereas rabbits ‘hop’. The ears of a hare are also considerably longer than those of a rabbit and have black fur on the tips. Additionally, their legs are much longer, so allowing the hare to sprint, its acceleration speed making even that of Usain Bolt look pathetic in comparison. Unfortunately despite their brilliant running ability hare populations are estimated to have decreased by up to 80% in the last century. This is most likely due to hare coursing and other means of human intervention.

The most iconic images of hares are often images of them boxing. Although most often seen in March – hence the term ‘mad March hare’ – this happens several times a year and is to do with reproduction.

Hares are typically solitary creatures, living the majority of their lives alone, only coming together to reproduce, mating ‘season’ happening several times a year.

So why do hares box? The obvious answer seems to be that males (bucks) will box each other over mating rights, the winner mating with the female (doe). This is definitely not the case though as boxing matches take place between a buck and a doe. It is widely regarded that a female will fend off an ‘overexcited’ male’s amorous advances by throwing a couple of punches.

Male hares partake in what is known as ‘mate guarding’, during which they closely follow a female to prevent them from being ‘stolen’ by another male. If a male is too persistent, for example if they chase her in an attempt to mate, she will ‘box’ with them in an attempt to fend off the male.






Animal Policies in Party Manifestos


Photo credit: In Memory of Vucko

The Conservative Party: Not much is mentioned about animal welfare in the Conservative manifesto, however what is mentioned, like most of the manifesto, is not in great detail and, in my opinion, does not have the same sense of importance as the other policies. It is said that the party wishes to implement “reforms to pet sales”, although it doesn’t specify exactly what this means. The manifesto also says that the party will make CCTV recording mandatory in all slaughterhouses. It is also a very public fact that the Conservatives wish to repeal the 2002 ban on fox hunting, promising that it will give a free vote in parliament to “decide the future of the Hunting Act”, which made the hunting of wild mammals with dogs illegal. Although it is a sporting activity, this party claims that holding hunts with dogs is a more humane way to control the fox population. Obviously this is a very controversial issue and it has met with a lot of opposition, including the Prime Minister, Theresa May, being heckled by opposers during the hustings in Maidenhead on the 27th of May.

The Labour Party: I found the Labour Party manifesto to be easy to navigate and straight forward. The party says that they will increase the maximum penalty for “those convicted of committing animal cruelty”. They also state that they will promote cruelty free animal husbandry and that they will will prohibit the third party sale of puppies. Labour have made it very clear that they wish to enforce a complete ban on any ivory trading (at present it is legal to trade ivory items made before 1947 as these products are deemed antiques) and that they support the ban on wild animals in circuses. The party also pledge that they will cease the badger cull and maintain the bans on fox and deer hunting and hare coursing. To protect marine life, they wish to reduce ocean waste. In an effort to increase biodiversity, Labour plan to plant more trees, providing a stable habitat for wild animals. They state that under a labour government, insecticides that harm bees will be prohibited.

Liberal Democrats: The liberal democrats gave sufficient detail on their manifesto regarding animal policies, pledging to “suspend the use of neonicotinoids until proven that their use in agriculture does not harm bees or other pollinators”, along with making penalties stronger for animal cruelty offenders, taking the maximum penalty from six months to five years. The party also wishes to introduce indentification requirements for the online sales of pets, in order to prevent the illegal importation of these companion animals. Additionally, they say that they will improve animal health and welfare standards in agriculture and ban caged hens. They also mention that they will take the illegal trade of ivory, fish and other wildlife.

The Green Party: the Green Party has so many policies relating to animals that they even have a separate manifesto for them ( the Green Party Animal Protection Manifesto)! Firstly, the Green Party states that they will introduce an Environmental Protection Act that will protect biodiversity and “promote … animal protection”. Taking ‘Brexit’ into account, they believe that the deal should include provisions to protect animal welfare. The party also boldly states that it opposes all forms of factory farming and promotes a reduction in meat consumption, as well as wanting to completely ban the ivory trade and being opposed to badger culling. In addition, Greens will apparently also work for a “complete replacement of animals in research and testing”, make CCTV mandatory in abattoirs and bring about an end to whaling and the keeping of cetaceans in captivity.

The Animal Welfare Party: As the name suggests, this party has many many policies geared towards animal welfare. The Animal Welfare Party is, to date, yet to release their manifesto, however they have provided a list of their key policies on their website. These policies include:

  • An end to all slaughter without prior stunning.
  • promotion of a plant-based diet, leading to an improvement in human health and therefore saving NHS funds.
  • Funds for alternative testing in order to phase out animal testing.
  • stopping live exportation of animals and reducing journey times for animals travelling to slaughter within the UK.
  • end the retail sale of all animals
  • ban puppy farms
  • “end the badger cull and oppose any repeal of the fox hunting ban”
  • an end to the exotic pet trade.

Plaid Cymru: There is not a lot mentioned in the Plaid Cymru manifesto on animal policies, however, they do state that they will “update and consolidate Welsh wildlife legislation, creating a new Wildlife Act for Wales”. The party also pledges to create and “Animal Abuse Register for Wales”.

Scottish National Party: The S.N.P. say that they will “set up a Wildlife Crime Investigation Unit as part of the police Scotland” and ban the issuing on electric dog collars. There may also be other policies that I am unaware of.


This post is impartial; in writing this post I do not mean to advocate any particular party, merely provide facts for those people whose vote is influenced by a party’s animal welfare policies and to encourage those who can to vote.



  • https://www.conservatives.com/manifesto
  • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/05/29/theresa-may-heckled-hunt-saboteurs-fox-hunting-manifesto-pledge/
  • http://www.labour.org.uk/page/-/Images/manifesto-2017/labour-manifesto-2017.pdf
  • http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/fox-hunting-ban-protest-conservatives-election-plan-tory-theresa-may-a7762786.html
  • http://www.libdems.org.uk/manifesto#
  • https://boughtbymany.com/news/article/pets-animals-in-2015-general-election-manifestos/
  • Plaid Cymru Manifesto
  • Green Party Animal Protection Manifesto
  • Animal Welfare Party key policies for 2017 general election
  • https://www.vegansociety.com/take-action/speak-out/european-union/uk/uk-general-election-2015/party-policies