Cancer Fighting Viruses – the good guys

 

Oncolytic Immunotherapy uses oncolytic viruses are injected directly into tumors where they replicate inside tumor cells causing cell lysis ( replicates inside cancer cells and causes the cell to burst) and death.

 

This release intracellular proteins activating the innate immune system including sting and TLR pathway leading to antitumoral effects. The released tumor antigens are taken up by the antigen presenting cells which activate the T cells triggering an immediate immune response.

The T cells seek and destroy the cancer cells wherever in the body. Providing a systematic adaptive immune response- specific to a patient’s cancer.

This immune therapy is developed on a herpes simplex virus-derived platform and are armed with multiple genes including proteins intended to enhance cancer cell killing and promote an antitumoral immune response. These proteins contain- Anti-CTLA-4(antibody like molecule and co-stimulatory pathway activators that promote cancer killing and antitumoral response.

 

As compares with systematic delivered antibody-based response, direct delivery to these proteins to the tumor cells both reduce toxicity and increase efficacy   specifically when used with other anticancer agents – including immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Some disadvantages of other cancer treatments:

  1. Cancer therapy such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy usually damage our normal cells body cells
  2. Other therapies such as surgeries are not always accurate and thus might not remove the tumor completely and thus cancer redeveloped.

Why can our own body not detect the cancer cells?

Our body is unable at detecting cancer cells because cancer cells look our bodies normal cells to the immune system using viruses, we make our cancer cells visible.

Why are normal cells resistant to these viruses?

If the cell is attacked by the virus it produces interferon- which protects the cell and its neighboring cells. However, cancer cells are weak thus they cannot produce interferon- even if they are given interferon, they cannot respond to it.

Another way in which oncolytic viruses help kill cancer cells

Step1: Insertion of cancer cells in mouse #1

Step2: The mouse #1 develops a tumor

Step3: The oncolytic virus is injected in the mouse#1

Step 4: The tumor is cured

Step5: Isolate the spleen cells from the mice – these spleens contain immune cells

Step6: injection of the spleen cells into mouse#2 (note that no viruses are injected in      mouse#2)

Step7: Injection of tumor cells into mouse#2

Observation: the tumor can be induced as the mouse#2 has acquired immunity from the spleen cells of mouse#1 to protect itself from the tumor cells.

Further Research:

  • Scientists are researching more over how to increase the specificity of the virus.
  • Provide a faster immune response
  • Reduce Side effects
  • Growing them on an industrial scale

References

https://replimune.com/our-science/oncolytic-immunotherapy/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nsoP4SPi2jY – Killing Cancer with Viruses: Patrick Lee at TEDx Halifax

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6tJJQgyso1I – oncolytic viral therapy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJvpDatBT4w – Institute of cancer research London

https://replimune.com/our-science/oncolytic-immunotherapy/

https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2018/oncolytic-viruses-to-treat-cancer

 

St. John’s Ambulance Training

St. Johns Ambulance training

First Aid is very crucial job, it is the difference you can make between life and death. First aid is provided to people not only during emergency situations- heart attack but also during normal circumstances – low blood sugar, without providing medication. First aiders are not doctors or nurses but play an important role in the health care society.

The St. Johns ambulance training- “First Aid At work and Employment” is a three-day course which is very useful for all students who want to pursue medicine. This allows the students to get an insight about some emergency situations.

Advantages of course are:

  • Provides knowledge about what care or actions are taken before patient is hospitalized.
  • Trains you to provide help to casualty which is a very good experience before a medicine.
  • Helps you to familiarize with some diseases and how to react to someone who has them.
  • This is a certified course it allows to apply to your school first aid team if the school permits
  • Trains us to deal with emergency scenarios which is good practice for the role Plays in MMI- by some efficient scenarios, moreover, teaching how to deal with panicking and stressful patients while thinking logically.

Note: Life is gift of god lets save and nuture it 

 

Dr. IBM Watson

Data in today’s world is scattered across various sources. Take our A level syllabus for example. We use different resources – textbooks, online notes, revision material, video lessons and most importantly past papers to create our notes. These notes are consolidated data which we prepare from vast information.

Image result for images of data

Similarly, data about various diseases, medical research, medicines and patients is vast and spread out in various sectors- research blogs, reports, magazines, videos and websites. Let’s take cancer for example,

There are various types of cancer, with different stages and symptoms for a range of age and gender. Analyzing this data and removing a precise diagnosis is very crucial.

 

Watson is a supercomputer at IBM which can manipulate unorganized data and can remove useful information from it. It reads and interprets a text like humans, can understand the context of the information and provide an appropriate response. It can not only learn new information but also formulate information and provide different combinations and solutions to problems. It analyses data from the tree of information and provides evidence for the evaluation.

Image result for images of How It Works: IBM Watson think academy

Today many experts in medical, law and research grounds approach Watson for combining new information and forming product we humans could never think of. In hospitals, data of various types of cancer as well as symptoms and treatments for various age groups and genders can be set up in Watson’s server and when required and can be accessed by doctors not only from the hospitals but also from other areas. This allows doctors in hospitals in less economically developed countries to also access Watson to improve diagnosis for their patients.

It does not help the doctors to access a wide range of consolidated information but also provides benefits to patients. Some apps use IBM Watson Health Cloud, it facilitates doctors to review their patients’ medical history, from different doctors, insurance companies and healthcare devices such as fitbits.

This provides the doctor with meaningful information about the patient. As the patients and doctors keep inputting information into Watson, it consolidates data and could also help other patients around the world suffering the same problem. It could also connect the patient and doctors to pharmaceutical industry for any unique medicine provision. Moreover, it also suggests options for medicine for a change in medical situation for the same patient.

In summary Watson creates an ecosystem for the healthcare industry to provide best suitable medicine options to patients to prevent high risk diseases and provide care at a very short notice.

 

References:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPXCF5e1_HI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtdJ1DGJjXA

My Global Perspective Report which was submitted the CIEdiksha individual report automation – Global Perspective

 

 

 

Sleep our superpower

Our study and related learning are like an ocean. In our day to day life we keep receiving information from various sources. Why is it that our brain only remembers some information for a very short time? Why does some information fade away?

It all lies to our daily routine activities- our beauty sleep.

Its proved that a quality deep sleep can allow information to be transferred from short term memory to long term memory.

The area where this miracle takes place is the hippocampus.

So thus it is very crucial to complete our 8hr sleep period in order to  remember and store our memories.

References:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160414214830.htm

https://brainworksneurotherapy.com/what-are-brainwaves

My motivation

A promise to myself

These crucial years will weave an unforgettable experience of passion, hardworking and self building. They should always project memories of work experience and research,not disbelieves. Remembering that they will never reverse back.