Feline Blood Donors

Hi Readers,

While walking around one of the veterinary school open days I noticed a sign that caught my attention. It was advertising for feline blood donors, which shocked me as I thought about the number of ethical questions it raised.

I looked into the procedure of cats donating blood a little more and found this article of the procedure that occurs when a cat donates blood:

https://www.petbloodbankuk.org/vet-professionals/transfusion-information-and-guidance/guides/collection/feline-blood-collection/

Although the article is written in a method format, certain wording of the instructions such as ‘Locate healthy happy cat’ did begin to support my original fear that donor cats may be being used solely for ‘harvesting blood’ and forgotten that he/she is a live animal. As the veterinary profession develops and we use human procedures in the vet world, I feel that ethical issues are raised such as the problem of consent. While a ‘healthy happy human’ can agree to donating blood for a good cause, not all humans are comfortable with doing so – through fear of needles for example. Unfortunately, we will never be able to speak to our feline friends to ask whether or not they are comfortable with having their blood extracted.

Granted they do not understand what is happening, probably don’t have the same fears as us and I’m sure some cats sit purring away…but should we really be doing it to save a pet for human pleasure? After all, if the pet wasn’t living in a home and suffered, say, a car accident where he/she has lost a lot of blood…he/she would probably be left to die at the side of a road – like a badger or a fox – and not taken to a vet to have its blood replaced.

Another point I have considered is the possibility of someone who has their beloved pet that they’ve become very attached to and he/she needed blood, they may buy a certain cat just to use it’s blood. Similar situations are seen in humans for transplants. I’m sure many of you have seen ‘My Sister’s Keeper’ – I do think in cases when the animal cannot consent for themself, blood and actual organs are equal in the rights we have to extract from them, although admittedly blood tissue is less risky to transplant that a whole organ.

An article by International Cat Care discusses the issues with feline blood donation:

“Most cats, for their own benefit, need to be sedated for blood donation and this in itself carries a small risk. The drugs used in sedation often lowers blood pressure, and donating blood itself can also lower blood pressure due to removing some of the circulating blood volume. These effects on blood pressure and circulation can be a particularly important if a cat has some underlying disease that neither the owner or the vet is aware of – especially things like heart disease and kidney disease.”

This is of course very different to the procedure in humans and there are questions raised as to whether this is ethical or not.

I would be interested to hear your thoughts on feline blood donors!

Sol

References

https://icatcare.org/advice/cat-health/blood-donor-cats

Are hunting dogs spreading Bovine TB?

Hi Readers,

Whilst reading last month’s issue of ‘Veterinary Record’ I came across an interesting article about hunting dogs and the spread of bovine TB.

In January of this year, 3 cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed by APHA. In March bovine tuberculosis was confirmed in a pack of hunting hounds in south-east England leading to the euthanasia of 25 dogs. Anti-hunting groups wanted to stop all hunting with hounds as a precaution, however officials have said there is little risk of bovine TB from hunting packs.

The Animal And Plant Health Agency (APHA) said, “TB in dogs caused by Mycobacterium bovis is very rare. There is no evidence to suggest the dogs play a significant role in the persistence of bovine TB in England and that hunting with dogs contributes to the spread of the disease amongst cattle.”

The dogs, which belonged to the Kimblewick hunt, voluntarily quarantined the dogs even though the government agencies did not impose restrictions.

The League Against Cruel Sports and Hounds Off asked for a strict ban on hunting with hounds as a biosecurity measure and requested an investigation of hunting with hounds and TB spread.

In 2011, research was carried out and the results from post-mortem examinations showed the presence of TB in Irish hunting hounds. This could be additional evidence for a potential risk.

Iain McGill, a former MAFF vet (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) comments that hounds run across fields, defecate on the fields – which is not picked up – eat cow pats and may pick up the bacteria from slurry spread on fields. The biosecurity is poor and to look scientifically, foot swabs should be taken of hounds and their faeces tested.

How the hunt hounds got the disease is not yet known but a possible route could have been consumption of contaminated carcasses or wildlife contamination of the kennel.

A spokesman for the BVA stated, “We are not aware of any evidence of a correlation between hunt areas and bovine TB incidence. We do not think that dogs running over a field present a significant risk of transmission.”

Having read this article I agree that it doesn’t seem that dogs spreading bTB is a huge risk. As APHA stated, the spread of Mycobacterium bovis by hound is very rare and cattle are more likely to contract it from other places. The Anti-Hunting groups may be using this incidence to aid their campaign however they have not produced any evidence to prove there is a significant threat in relation to hounds and the spread of bTB. The number of cases of bovine TB in dogs seems small so far this year.

I would love to hear your thoughts on hunting hounds spreading TB or any comments on hunting in general.

Sol

References 

Veterinary Record Vol 180 No 24

Mental Health in Veterinary Medicine

Dear Readers,

I recently attended a Mental Health First Aid course so I am now a “Mental Health First Aider”. Many people have asked me what this actually means and unfortunately many have also initially thought I wasn’t serious when I told them.

In the veterinary profession mental health is an important part of the vets well being and good mental health results in a much happier lifestyle and enhances performance. This is also applicable to aspiring vets like myself, and our ability to have fun as well as study hard. The most important thing is to find that balance!

It has taken me a lot of time and I have put a lot of thought into how I could phrase this post, however if I could take away one thing from my course it would be to not be afraid of talking about mental health.

Mental health issues affect us as much as physical illness – the biggest problem is the stigma attached to mental health. People fear that if they talk about how they feel they will be pushed aside and thought of as ‘attention seeking’. They may feel as though they won’t get the promotion they wanted or an interview at a company they’ve always wanted to work for, living in fear that someone may find out their ‘secret’ of suffering with poor mental health and think less of them. Yet this attention is what they may well need to show themselves they have enough support around them to deal with whatever it is they’re struggling with. Just because people cannot directly see an illness definitely doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist.

I have looked at some statistics on mental health specifically in the veterinary profession and I found that:

  • 5% of VET STUDENTS wouldn’t want anyone to know if they were suffering from a mental health problem
  • 1 in 4 people in the UK have experienced a mental health problem in the last year
  • According to the results of a 2012 study of veterinary surgeons with a history of suicidal thoughts or behaviour, which was published in Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, half the participants had not talked with anyone about their problems because they felt guilty or ashamed.
  • 24.5% of males and 36.7% of females in veterinary medicine have experienced depressive episodes since leaving veterinary school, which is about one-and-a-half times the prevalence of a U.S. adult throughout their lifetime.

These are difficult statistics to read and I have purposefully left out some of the more shocking data. When attending the course I was asked by a lady “How are you coping with this? You are very young.” I found the comment very interesting, while yes I agree that some of the topics we covered were very profound I feel as though as young adults we are protected from topics such as suicidal crisis and psychosis and we tend to shy away from learning more about them. On the other hand, young people who have suffered with mental health issues may have isolated themselves resulting in the knowledge adolescents and teenagers have of mental health being very limited – perhaps this is the reason even adults believe myths and false information that society has made up about certain mental health conditions as a result of not knowing enough.

Everyone I know has in some way helped another person by listening when something has been bothering them, proving as humans we naturally do care about the feelings and thoughts had by a friend/peer. What we need to change is how we treat the idea of putting a ‘label’ or a name to the certain mental health problems – this label is nothing to be afraid of. Admitting you’re struggling to someone you trust, appears to be half the battle! A friend with a mental health problem is still a friend. The same person you have been friends with for 10 years is still the same person and it is a compliment to you if they feel they can trust you enough to tell you they are struggling with depression, anxiety or any mental health problem for that matter.

One of the important things to note about mental health in this occupation is the raised suicide rate in vets compared with other professions. On this course a lady mentioned she had heard this described as ‘the cowards way out’ or a ‘sign of weakness’. I hope that one day society will believe that the controversial and very difficult topic of assisted suicide in terminally ill people, will be seen as the same reason people chose to take their own lives when they feel their poor mental health is also terminal as they do not feel they could ask for the help and support they desperately need.

Thankfully wonderful organisations such as Mind Matters run by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons exist. They offer training and vet helpline numbers, which clearly shows the support for mental health is developing and increasing and that this area of society is heading in a very positive direction. The Mind Matters twitter page inspired me to look for a mental health first aid course and I have inserted the link to their website below:

http://www.rcvs.org.uk/news-and-events/news/mind-matters-initiative-new-veterinary-mental-health-and/

Mental Health can still be controversial and people have many different ideas on certain issues. I would very much enjoy hearing your thoughts or am happy for people to get in contact with me if you would like to know more about the course I attended and how to sign up yourself!

Sol

Stats references

http://www.vetfutures.org.uk/download/factsheets/Statistics%20about%20mental%20health%20within%20the%20UK%20veterinary%20profession.pdf

 

https://www.vetlife.org.uk/mental-health/depression/

Ethics in pig farming

Hi Readers,

After a long period of revision and exams I am back and very excited to start my many weeks of work experience I have lined up this summer!

Today I’m going to be investigating pig farming as I always ensure I do some research into any new animal before working with them on work experience. I’m so glad I have the chance to work with such intelligent creatures in the summer and want to also look into the breeding of these animals and how they are kept beforehand.

It was brought to my attention that there are lots of laws and regulations on pig farming when listening to a talk on “Compassion in World Farming” in my school by Eileen Greeves that must be adhered to when keeping pigs.

The topics included are: Pig housing and design (making sure they have enough material to investigate and have the ability to stand up, lie down and rest without difficulty and able to see other pigs at all times), Feeding and watering pigs (making sure they’re fed at least once a day and have the correct amount of water available to them dependant on their size), Health and welfare (getting any necessary medical treatment at the correct time and dose), Protecting animals from hazards and emergencies (stock should be moved to a more suitable area if there’s no natural or artificial shelter to protect grazing stock from extreme weather – heat waves, flooding or being buried by snow).

However what caught my interest was the following criteria.

Mutilating pigs

Boar tusks

Boar tusks should only be reduced in length when there’s evidence that it’s needed to prevent injuries to other animals/for safety reasons.

Castration

Pigs shouldn’t be castrated wherever possible and other ways should be used to reduce aggression and avoid boar taint. Boar taint is an unpleasant smell that is smelled during the heating of pork. Boar taint occurs particularly in meat of adult male pigs due to changes in the hormonal system when the animal is growing older. Boar taint rarely occurs in female pigs or castrated male pigs. Research has shown that there are three  substances that can cause boar taint: androstenone, skatole and indole. Androstenone – substance that is important in the development of the sperm cells in male animals. Skatole – produced during the degradation of certain amino acids in the body. Skatole – affects both male and female animals. Castration of male piglets lowers the concentration of Skatole significantly.

If castration must be done, a method must be used that doesn’t involve tearing tissues. Farmers can castrate pigs up to 7 days old, as long as they’ve been trained to do so – older pigs must be castrated by a vet.

Tail docking

Pigs should be separated or stocking densities cut down to reduce aggression. If those methods fail then tail docking should be a last resort on pigs over 7 days old and must be:

  • carried out under anaesthetic and additional prolonged analgesia (painkillers)
  • carried out by a vet
  • done by a quick and complete cutting of the tail

Tail docking is performed to reduce tail biting and cannibalism among pigs.

Teeth clipping

Corner teeth shouldn’t be routinely reduced in piglets. Only if there’s evidence that they’re injuring a sow’s teats or other pigs’ ears or tails, and farmers are trained to do so, can they do this.

Carrying out grinding or clipping routinely is not allowed. When steps have been taken to improve the environment or management of pigs to prevent tail biting but there’s evidence it’s still happening, you can carry out grinding or clipping. But this should only be:

  • done in the first 7 days of the piglet’s life
  • a uniform reduction of the corner teeth

Nose rings

It is not allowed to put nose rings in pigs kept continuously in indoor housing systems.

————————————————————————————————-

In reading these rules and measures put in place to prevent certain behaviours in particular I have found that pigs can be rather aggressive compared with similar sized animals I have worked with (ie. sheep). I researched this a little more and found there are a few reasons for this. Piglets show aggression to other piglets within the first week of life while forming a teat order (they always suckle the same teat so much form this teat order). Introducing new pigs into a group may lead to aggression as the pigs establish social ranks. Pigs may spend 1–2 minutes nosing each other, vocalising, and then biting until one of the pigs retreats. It may take several days to establish a hierarchy in older pigs.

Crowding and limited amounts of food increase aggression. During breeding, boars may fight and become very vocal; boars will strut shoulder to shoulder, champ their jaws (producing pheromone-rich saliva), then finally face each other and attack. Serious injuries may result, especially among boars that still have their tusks. Breeds with lower body fat are more aggressive when handled.

Tail biting was one of the behaviours that really caught my attention. Tail biting is seen mostly in confined pigs. Overcrowding and boredom seem to be the main causes. Free-ranging pigs spend 5–10 hours daily looking for food and rooting, whereas pigs kept in pens consume meals in a short time. Slatted floors without bedding, low-salt diets, and low-iron soil seem to prompt pigs to start tail biting. Once the problem starts, blood from the injured tail seems to arouse the other pigs and can even lead to death of the victim however it rarely advances to pure cannibalism.

In terms of cannibalism, this is seen in first time mum gilts (young female pigs), cannibalism accounts for 4% of piglet deaths and is estimated to affect about 18% of litters. It is most common immediately after giving birth when the sow is stressed. Usually, the sow will bark to warn piglets walking by her head and then later attack them, biting them to death. This may raise some ethical questions such as should they become so stressed that they resort to killing their young? Can this be helped? Does it happen in smallholdings where space isn’t so much of an issue? From a veterinary point of view, how could we ensure that in farms that number decreases in order to help farmers produce as many piglets as possible?

I look forward to working with such a different species and hope I learn more about their behaviour in a commercial setting. As always, thoughts and personal experiences are very much welcomed in the comment section.

Sol

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/code-of-recommendations-for-the-welfare-of-livestock-pigs/pigs-welfare-recommendations#pig-housing-and-design

http://boars2018.com/background/what-is-boar-taint/

https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/Tail-Docking-and-Teeth-Clipping-of-Swine.aspx

http://www.msdvetmanual.com/behavior/normal-social-behavior-and-behavioral-problems-of-domestic-animals/behavioral-problems-of-swine

http://nswschoolanimals.com/pigs-2/pigs-handling/

 

 

 

Inspired by table salt – cyanide poisoning

Hi Readers,

I was eating my dinner early this week and I noticed on the salt bottle that an anticaking agent called ‘potassium ferrocyanide’ was used. I began to wonder, as I remembered learning in biology that cyanide is a competitive inhibitor, what the “ferro-” prefix signified and how the “ferro-” prevents it from inhibiting our enzymes.

After carrying out some online research I found that the ferrocyanide has its cyanide ions very tightly bound to the iron atom and stays with the iron right through the digestive system. The ferrocyanide cannot freely pass through the plasma membrane.

Nitrites can be used to treat for cyanide poisoning. The nitrites oxidise some of the haemoglobin’s iron converting the haemoglobin into methemoglobin. This releases more cytochrome oxidase enzyme (more of the enzyme which is being inhibited by the cyanide, which is preventing cellular respiration).

Cyanide binds to methemoglobin, forming cyanmethemoglobin. Treatment with nitrites is not really safe as methemoglobin cannot carry oxygen, and severe methemoglobinemia may occur and needs to be treated in turn with methylene blue (which used to be used to directly treat cyanide poisoning). Sodium nitrite is rapidly effective but can cause life-threatening toxicity (methemoglobinemia), whereas sodium thiosulfate – which can also be used to treat cyanide poisoning – has a delayed effect but is far safer.

I decided to look into cyanide poisoning in cattle, and the most frequent cause of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning in livestock is ingestion of plants that either contain cyanogenic glycosides (young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides) or are induced to produce cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids.

Treatment

The affected cattle should be treated immediately by drenching with sodium thiosulphate. 60 g should be given in 600 ml of water. This can then be repeated hourly until the animal recovers.

The most effective treatment for cyanide poisoning is an intravenous injection of sodium thiosulphate. This is best administered by a vet at a dose rate of 660 mg/kg as well as oral/intraruminal doses of 30 g in 100 ml of water. The animals may require repeated intravenous doses if they relapse.

Sodium thiosulphate in a high dose can be effective when given up to 30 minutes after the ingestion of a toxic dose of cyanide, but it must be given as soon as possible.

Symptoms may include:

  • rapid laboured breathing
  • irregular pulse
  • frothing at the mouth
  • dilated pupils
  • muscle tremors
  • staggering

The mucous membranes are bright red in colour due to oxygen saturation of the haemoglobin.

If large quantities of cyanide are absorbed rapidly enough, the animals detoxification mechanisms will be overwhelmed and the animal will soon die. Affected animals rarely survive more than 1-2 hours after consuming the lethal quantities of cyanogenic plants and usually die within 5-15 minutes of developing clinical signs of poisoning.

Again, as I regularly mention, PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN A CURE! In order to prevent possible cyanide poisoning:

  • Graze sorghum, sorghum crosses, or john-songrass plants only when they are at least 18-24 inches tall.
  • Do not graze plants during drought periods when growth is severely reduced or the plant is wilted or twisted.  Slowed growth and the inability of the plant to maturefavours the formation of cyanogenic compounds in the leaves.
  • Do not graze potentially hazardous forages when frost is likely (including at night). Frost allows conversion to hydrogen cyanide within the plant. It is best not to allow ruminants to graze after a light frost as this is an extremely dangerous time and it may be several weeks before the cyanide potential subsides.
  • Do not allow access to wild cherry leaves.

Have any of you ever seen this in real life? I look forward to hearing any thoughts!

Sol

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrocyanide

https://www.quora.com/How-dangerous-is-E536-anti-caking-agent-potassium-ferrocyanide-on-salt

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/814287-treatment https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/animal-industries/animal-health-and-diseases/protect-your-animals/poisonings-of-livestock/cyanide-and-nitrate-poisoning/treating-cyanide-and-nitrate-poisoning

http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agcomm/pubs/ID/ID220/ID220.pdf

“Fixing a broken heart”

Hi Readers,

Following a talk I recently had at school on UCAS applications as I start to think about applying to university, an interesting point was raised as a side topic by our guest speaker. He mentioned that zebrafish, a fish of no economic value to commercial fisheries, might help to extend our generations’ lifetime by almost 20 years.

The zebrafish is a special animal to biologists because its body is transparent. Therefore zebrafish are transparent early in their life cycle, so it is easy for researchers to see their hearts and blood vessels grow. Their hearts begin to develop after just 12 hours, and they reach adult size – about 3cm long – in about three months. They can provide research results barely three days later. If researchers modify the fish’s genotype at the egg stage, they can see a change in organ shape or dynamics very quickly.

In this 30-hour-old zebrafish embryo, you can observe developing organs like the retina (R), the brain (B), spinal chord (SC), the muscle (M) and the heart (H).

Heart tissue damage may occur when a person has suffered from a heart attack which affects their quality of life. Understanding what proteins allow human heart cells to multiply and regenerate, as they do in these fish, could help develop drugs that help our hearts to heal themselves.

If a person has a heart attack, the heart tissue lacks blood and therefore oxygen, causing it to become damaged or dead. Zebrafish can repair their hearts, unlike humans – heart muscle cells near the damaged area lose their muscle properties and revert back to stem cells. Scientists know that a protein called Mef2 is needed to turn zebrafish stem cells into heart muscle cells.

Dr Yaniv Hinits and colleagues believe that zebrafish muscle cells near wounds are able to turn Mef2 on and off – turning Mef2 off to revert to stem cells, before growing and turning Mef2 back on to repair the heart. Their team has been awarded a grant to find out if controlling Mef2could be used to treat damaged human heart tissue. They will study Mef2 in detail, find out if it can heal the heart after injury, and test if other proteins thought to influence recovery after heart attack are working through Mef2.

From my understanding, the grant was for three years and started 1st July 2014. I hope we hear some results in a few months time from this promising experiment.

Sol

https://www.bhf.org.uk/get-involved/mending-broken-hearts/research/zebrafish—do-they-hold-the-secret-cure

https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/danio_rerio.htm

http://www.giraldezlab.org/Zebrafish.html

 

The impact on the Farming Community and Vets alike post Brexit

Hi Readers,

With the recent news of the General Election being brought forward, I thought I’d share what I have been told by farmers on how Brexit will have an impact on them as well as the veterinary community.

Speaking to a dairy farmer his comments were:

  • He was in favour of brexit
  • The control of TB can be managed without being banned from vaccination under EU law
  • Currently if vaccinations we administered to the cattle, the EU would bar imports of British beef – which he feels would not be a bad thing as it would mean we wouldn’t need to import beef either from the EU
  • If we didn’t import so much from the EU we can produce our own beef and control numbers without being told how much to import/export
  • He hopes that a vaccination programme could eradicate bovine TB in Britain within a decade

Another beef farmer I spoke to has concerns that as a cause of Brexit, TB testing costs will have to be covered more by farmers, and testing may be forced to occur more frequently

.Screen Shot 2017-04-19 at 12.10.06

An article I found by Philip Case on Farmer’s Weekly had some interesting points. These outlined the effects on different areas of farming.

Subsidy reform beyond the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy which implements a system of subsidies and other programmes)

“As things stand, the EU contributes £2.9bn to the UK via the CAP and its related subsidies, yet our estimated net contribution is more than three times that, at £9.8bn. Thus, unconstrained by EU rules, the government will now be in a position, if appropriate, to increase rural payments.”

Labour

“There are an estimated 67,000 seasonal workers of non-UK origin, chiefly from eastern European countries inside the EU, in UK agriculture. Owen Paterson says UK government must reintroduce a seasonal agricultural workers’ scheme post Brexit

Combating animal and plant disease

“By retaking control of our borders, we can implement a system with the kind of rigour found in Australia and New Zealand, to the benefit of our animal and plant health. This will ensure the safety of British trees, plants and animals for generations to come.”

This is one of the areas that may affect vets and vets of the future.

A Farmer’s Weekly Reporter writes:

FUW president Glyn Roberts said: “We have long been calling for the creation of a post-Brexit UK agricultural framework, and discussions between UK and Welsh government have been frustratingly slow.

The NFU said it would use the next seven weeks in the run-up to the general election to ensure that all parties engaged with the food and farming community.

Jeremy Corbin has said he will raise minimum wage to £10 an hour but with farmers already struggling, as we are not ‘Buying British’ is this going to be possible? Having a strong insight into the hard work that goes on in this community, these workers must be there to ensure the farms function properly. If farmers are paying their workers more, will they be forced to make cuts to veterinary costs (e.g. Health Clubs) that they know are causing their farms to grow and perform better?

One thing is certain with the whole Brexit process…no one is sure what is going to happen! Young farmers and aspiring large animal vets are all concerned what will happen to our field of interest but it seems the Farming community is doing all they can. My frustration is, although we understand the benefits and drawbacks of Brexit, young people my age cannot vote to get their opinions across in such as important topic – one which will massively impact our future!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Agricultural_Policy

http://www.fwi.co.uk/news/owen-paterson-spells-out-vision-for-farming-post-brexit.htm

http://www.fwi.co.uk/news/brexit-key-general-election-issue-say-farm-leaders.htm

https://www.visavet.es/bovinetuberculosis/bovine-tb/diagnosis.php

Bovine Coccidiosis

Hi Readers,

Many who know me are aware that my passion for animals stemmed from growing up on a sheep and cattle farm, which has hugely influenced my career choice. This week I thought I’d write about a disease in my favourite animal, as I’ve always been interested in pathology especially in cows.

Bovine Coccisiosis is my chosen disease for this week, a disease caused by single celled protozoa (from the genus Eimeria). Their complex lifecycle involves asexual and sexual reproduction and know for the damage they do to intestinal mucosa. There are more than a dozen species of coccidia, however only three (E.bovis, E. zuernii and E. alabamensis) are thought to be clinically significant.

Screen Shot 2017-04-08 at 18.55.27

The signs of infection are dependant on factors such as age, immune status and level of challenge. The signs however include: diarrhoea (which could contain blood), tenesmus (straining to empty the bowel without success); in more chronic and subclinical forms, an appearance of a ‘poor doer’, stary coat, pasty faeces, reduced appetite and poor growth rate.

The following is a flow chart of the life cycle of this protozoa that I made to help me understand it:

Screen Shot 2017-04-08 at 20.10.25

(click to enlarge)

Faecal oocyst counts are frequently recommended for confirming a diagnosis of coccidiosis. Many samples should be taken from in contact as well as affected calves and all should be examined.

(Oocyst is the encysted zygotic stage in the life cycle of some sporozoans (a protozoan of the phylum Sporozoa))

There are some treatments for Coccidiosis are available. These include decoquinate (Deccox) – in feed, diclazuril (Vecoxan) and toltrazuril (Baycox) – all anticoccidials, two given by a drench. Sulphonamide drugs can also be used and proper nursing is also important (with oral electrolyte fluid being given if diarrhoea is causing dehydration).

Again, as I have mentioned many times, PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN A CURE! So the following measures should be in place to prevent this infection reaching and affecting a herd. It has been found in 50% of dairy herds visited by XLVets and problems are also being seen in suckling beef calves. Those affected are mostly between 2-3 months old.

  • An ‘all in, all out’ policy – allowing pens to be thoroughly cleaned between loads
  • Disinfectant may help – but most coccidial oocysts are highly resistant to most disinfectants
  • Pens should be well bedded – to keep pens clean
  • Good drainage and ventilation – to keep pens dry
  • Feed should be in troughs off the floor and clean (free from faecal contamination) as well as water troughs
  • Scouring calves should be isolated – for treatment and reducing risk of transmission to other animals
  • Strategic dosing (in feed or via drench) if time of challenge and disease can be predicted (weaning time/ when weaned calves are grouped in rearing sheds)

Other top tips include:

  • Minimise stress at all times by avoiding mixing (especially when weaning)
  • Avoid overstocking
  • Early diagnosis and treatment is essential

 References:

Alan Walker XLVets Fact sheets

Alpaca Mating

Hi Readers,

Back in October, I did some alpaca work experience and was lucky enough to be involved in testing to see if the female alpacas were pregnant. I hadn’t heard much about alpaca breeding and was interested to see how different it is to calving and lambing that I have much more experience in.

When the hembra was pregnant and so had a functional corpus luteum, she would aggressively refuse the male’s efforts to mount ie. She would try to run from the stud alpaca, with ears down, and spitting. If the female was not pregnant and had not ovulated, she would sit for remating.

This indication of pregnancy is seen if he is reintroduced over 15 days after the initial breeding. A functional corpus luteum is present 2–3 days after ovulation.

The corpus luteum develops on the ovary at the site of ovulation and produces progesterone (the pro-gestational hormone) to maintain the foetus for the entire pregnancy as well as for implantation. If a female ovulates but fails to conceive, she will become receptive again approximately 12-14 days after the failed mating.

The fertilised secondary oocyte is usually found in the uterus by day 7 after mating, with implantation occurring after around 30 days of gestation.

Ovulation in a female alpaca usually occurs as a result of ‘copulation’ (alpacas are “induced ovulators” rather than having oestrus cycles like we do).  Females can ovulate as a result of the stimulation of being near to a mating pair. When the female is ready for mounting she will sit in a “cush” position. The male vocally “orgles” (a type of mating call) as he mounts her.

Gestation is usually around 11.5 to 12 months.

I enjoy learning more about what I see on work experience as there isn’t always time to explain what is happening. However, my favourite part on this farm was bottle feeding the crias, they are not as keen to suck as lambs are though!

17618844_1846421955612904_1709178304_n 17578008_1846421968946236_944703537_n

Has anyone else done any alpaca or even llama experience? I look forward to hearing from you!

Sol

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References

http://www.msdvetmanual.com/exotic-and-laboratory-animals/llamas-and-alpacas/reproduction-of-llamas-and-alpacas

http://criagenesis.cc/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CriaGenesis-Paddock-mating1.pdf

https://www.thealpacaplace.co.nz/articles/breeding-and-reproduction/breeding-alpacas/

Strangles in Horses

Hi Readers,

So after a recent outbreak of Strangles very close to home, I thought I would research this disease in greater detail. Having been aware of the disease for many years now, the necessity of knowing its whereabouts is crucial when caring for my horse.

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My biggest fear when hearing about a recent Strangles case is always how contagious it is. As a young child I was always told not to go on public bridle paths when the yard nearby has a case of strangles. However, Strangles is not actually airborne unlike equine flu so I am not sure how effective this piece of advice actually was.

It is a respiratory infection caused by Strep. Equi, which causes depression, loss of appetite/difficulty eating, raised temperature, cough, nasal discharge, swollen glands in throat and rupture of glands with pus visible as symptoms. The disease can be diagnosed by a blood test; some issues with detecting Strangles include its tendency to be mistaken by the common cold or allergies. In severe cases, Strangles can be fatal in 1% of cases when abscesses develop in other body organs which grow and rupture, a form known as ‘bastard strangles’. Another life threatening complication is “Purpura hemorrhagica”. This is widespread small bleeding along with fluid accumulation of the limbs, eyelids and gums. The outer accumulation of fluid can be so extreme that circulatory failure and death can occur.

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From seminars I have attended in farm animal health, the concepts are near enough always the same. If you go out of your way, speaking to the yard owner and educating people on the yard, to prevent the disease entering and infecting your animals in the first place, the hard decisions that come when the disease gets very severe will not have to be made. Prevention is always better that a cure! To try to prevent the disease from infecting an animal a number of precautions can be taken:

  • Avoid contact/sharing tack or equipment with horses whose health status you do not know (e.g at shows)
  • Don’t overcrowd a yard – diseases spread more easily
  • Quarantine horses that come on the yard, care should be taken with who comes into contact with the new arrival and what other animals they have to attend to  
  • If people have arrived from an affected yard, their movement should be restricted
  • Horses should be up to date with their vaccinations

There is also a vaccine to prevent Strangles. The Equilis StrepE is a vaccine that contains the active substance live deletion mutant Streptococcus equi bacteria. This is the first vaccine to be licensed for horses in the EU against strangles. All members should follow a vaccination schedule on a yard to be sure this vaccine is effective and to prevent the closure of a yard.

I would be really interested in any experience you have had with the disease. Feel free to comment below!

Sol

References

http://www.equine-strangles.co.uk/disease-control.aspx

http://www.theodora.com/drugs/eu/equilis_strepe_veterinary.html

http://www.equine-strangles.co.uk/about-strangles.aspx